Child Development at 2.5 Years

Posture & Large Movements

  • Walks upstairs alone but downstairs holding rail, two feet to a step.
  • Runs well straight forward and climbs easy nursery apparatus.
  • Pushes and pulls large toys skilfully, but has difficulty in steering them round obstacles.
  • Jumps with two feet together.
  • Can stand on tiptoe if shown.
  • Kicks large ball.
  • Sits on tricycle and steers with hands, but still usually propels with feet on ground.

Vision & Fine Movements

  • Picks up pins, threads, etc., with each eye covered separately.
  • Builds tower of seven (or 7+) cubes and lines blocks to form a ‘train’.
  • Recognises minute details in picture books.
  • Imitates horizontal line and circle (also usually T and V).
  • Paints strokes, dots and circular shapes on easel.
  • Recognises himself in photographs when once shown.
  • Recognises miniature toys and retrieves balls 21/8 inches at 10 feet, each eye separately.
  • May also match special single letter-cards V, O, T, H at 10 feet.

Hearing & Speech

  • Uses 200 or more recognisable words but speech shows numerous infantilisms.
  • Knows full name.
  • Talks intelligibly to himself at play concerning events happening here and now.
  • Echolalia persists.
  • Continually asking questions beginning ‘What?’,‘Where?’.
  • Uses pronouns, I, me and you.
  • Stuttering in eagerness common. Says a few nursery rhymes.
  • Enjoys simple familiar stories read from picture book.
  • 6 toy test, 4 animal picture test, 1st cube test. Full doll vocabulary.

Social Behaviour & Play

  • Eats skilfully with spoon and may use fork.
  • Pulls down pants or knickers at toilet, but seldom able to replace.
  • Dry through night if lifted.
  • Very active, restless and rebellious.
  • Throws violent tantrums and when thwarted or unable to express urgent need and less easily distracted.
  • Emotionally still very dependent upon adults.
  • Prolonged domestic make-believe play (putting dolls to bed, washing clothes, driving motor cars, etc.) but with frequent reference to friendly adult.
  • Watches other children at play interestedly and occasionally joins in for a few minutes, but little notion of sharing playthings or adult’s attention.

Source: Reports on Public Health and Medical Subjects No 102. HMSO 1960, revised 1975.